Map of Meteorite Crash Landings

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Wonder where on Earth to collect space rocks? Stay at home. The map above shows every meteorite strike known to fall on earthly terrain. And from the looks of it, the United States is prime collecting grounds.

To build the map, Javier de la Torre, co-founder of Vizzuality and CartoDB, used records from Meteoritical Society that pinpointed the location of 34,513 meteorite strikes dating back to 2,300BC.

Why these hotspots? It is likely that no one particular place is more susceptible to a meteorite strike than another. What is more likely is that the identified locations are in areas where people know to look for meteorites, having either seen a meteor streak through the sky or finding one with the knowledge that not all rocks on Earth originated here.

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New Platinum Age of Maps

Plotting the landscape of digital information

 For this street map of the United States, pink shades represent roads that were mapped recently by OpenStreetMap users; bluer shades represent roads that were mapped years ago. OpenStreetMap

For this street map of the United States, pink shades represent roads that were mapped recently by OpenStreetMap users; bluer shades represent roads that were mapped years ago.

The 17th Century, particularly in The Netherlands, is considered the Golden Age of maps. The Dutch were spanning the globe for trade and their maps and atlases became lavish and colorful works of art depicting mysterious worlds encountered by explorers.

Fast forward to the 21st Century and with the ubiquity of GPS devices, navigational maps have more or less gone the way of the horse and buggy. But maps themselves are seeing a renaissance as the landscape of digital information needs plotting.

Andy Woodruff, a cartographer with Axis Maps, primarily makes Web-based, interactive maps, much like the ones found on his website Bostonography says we’re experiencing a boom thanks to revolutionary advances in digital mapping tools and software.

“Technology has allowed people to see what people like us always knew: that geography is endlessly fascinating and hugely important in our lives,” Woodruff told Discovery News.

There’s nothing quite like poring over a great map, so click through our collection and get a glimpse of how today’s digital cartographers are indeed ‘pushing it further.’

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Antarctica Without Ice and Snow

What does Antarctica look like in its underwear?
What does Antarctica look like in its underwear?

 

A team at the British Antarctic Survey working with NASA pulled together decades of data to show us a virtual map without all the ice and snow. For the first time, the continent’s bare topography is revealed.

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The Bedmap2 is a new virtual map created from substantial amounts of data that included recent measurements from airborne missions as well as satellites. The project, led by British Antarctic Survey scientist Peter Fretwell, relied on NASA’s Operation IceBridge, which has recorded Antarctica’s surface elevations, ice shelf limits and ice thickness. The new map led to some unexpected discoveries about the southernmost continent.

Not only is the volume of ice in Antarctica 4.6 percent greater than previously thought but the deepest point turns out to be under Byrd Glacier — about 1,300 feet deeper than the spot that had been called the deepest, according to research Fretwell and his colleagues recently published in the scientific journal The Cryosphere (PDF).

The Bedmap2 could also help humanity in the future. Study co-author Hamish Pritchard pointed out that understanding the actual height and thickness of the ice as well as the landscape underneath will be fundamental to modelling the ice sheet. ”Knowing how much the sea will rise is of global importance, and these maps are a step towards that goal,” he told the British Antarctic Survey.

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Over at NASA, interactive images show how the continent currently appears, and using a slider you can see the Bedmap2 topography below. There’s also a feature comparing the original Bedmap from 10 years ago with the newest one. Visualizing what’s below the frozen landscape is impressive, as long as it doesn’t end up being a snapshot of our planet’s shirtless future.

Image: Antarctica’s underlying topography in the Bedmap2. Credit: NASA Goddard’s Scientific Visualization Studio.

 

The Rising Cost of Carbon Pollution

cost of carbon

 

Every ton of carbon dioxide we emit this year will cost the world $35 in health problems, wildfires, loss of agricultural productivity, and other disasters, according to the U.S. government. It had computed $21 a ton in 2010.

The value, known as the social cost of carbon – and which can equal the carbon tax — will rise for every additional ton of carbon dioxide we emit. It will be $43 in 2020 and $71 in 2050.

The world emitted 34 billion tons of carbon dioxide in 2011.

The U.S. government routinely uses social cost when designing regulations such as fuel efficiency standards for cars. The value is calculated by the Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon, composed of 12 government agencies, and was released on May 31.

A price for carbon is needed because we are shortsighted and are best at dealing with immediate problems. But the effects of climate change are not immediate. The extreme weather and high temperatures we are experiencing now are the result of the past emissions, and our present emissions will affect us decades into the future.

Most of us will not live through the worst of it. So, how much is it worth to the average American today to lessen climate change for future generations? It is an ethical question that gets worked out by economists.

Some of them disagree quite vehemently with the government’s calculations. Economists have redone the calculations and found that the actual social cost could be up to 12 times as large as the government’s 2010 estimate.

The government has increased social cost value to $35 this year because it has better knowledge of climate change effects, including sea level dynamics and the economic effects of sea level rise.

IMAGE: A dragonfly trapped in tar sands exposed in a road cutting north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, the center of the tar sands industry. The tar sands is the world’s largest industrial project and the most environmentally destructive. Carbon emissions from the tar sands is fueling climate change.

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Global Floods of the Future

Projected return period (in years) in the 21st Century for river discharges matching what in the 20th Century were 100-year floods.
Projected return period (in years) in the 21st Century for river discharges matching what in the 20th Century were 100-year floods.

scientists who have employed no fewer than 11 separate climate models to study the decades ahead.

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The daring rescue of an elderly woman from a flooded river in Missouri is caught on video.

“Floods are among the most major climate-related disasters,” writes Yukiko Hirabayashi of The University of Tokyo and lead author of a paper in the June 9 issue of the journal Nature Climate Change. “In the past decade, reported annual losses from floods have reached tens of billions of U.S. dollars and thousands of people were killed each year.”

This, and the fact that the primary worldwide organization that studies such things–the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)–has pointed out the need for better projections of river flooding, served as motivation for the new study.

What the researchers found was an increase in the frequency of flooding rivers in Southeast Asia, Peninsular India, eastern Africa and the northern half of the Andes. At the same time, river flood frequencies will drop in parts of northern and Eastern Europe, Anatolia, Central Asia, central North America and southern South America.

In terms of the number of people exposed to flood risks, they found that depends on the temperatures to which things heat up. With a 2-degree Celsius rise in temperature, about 27 million people will be exposed to more floods. With a 4 degrees C warming the exposure rises to 62 million and at 6 degrees C it is up to 93 million people.

The climate models were also used to study the outlets of some river basins. There they saw the frequency of floods increasing during the twenty-first century in just about every selected rivers in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania, Africa and Northeast Eurasia. They also predict that what were considered 100-year floods in the 20th century will occur every 10 to 50 years in the 21st century.

“This is very important and useful information, and shows that policy makers should take climate change into account when developing adaptation strategies,” said flood researcher Brenden Jongman of VU University of Amsterdam. “Also, the analysis of changes in flood frequency on a global scale is very important – this shows that in many developing countries the frequency of extreme events might be increasing.”

While the latest IPCC report still states that ‘global warming might lead to higher flood frequencies and intensities, Jongman explained, this work finally puts real numbers on the flooding.

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Climate Change Has Shifted the Location

Climate Change Has Shifted the Locations of Earth’s North and South Poles

 Climate Change Has Shifted the Locations
Climate Change Has Shifted the Locations

Increased melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and other ice losses worldwide have helped to move the North Pole several centimeters east each year since 2005

Global warming is changing the location of Earth’s geographic poles, according to a new study in Geophysical Research Letters.

Researchers at the University of Texas, Austin, report that increased melting of the Greenland ice sheet — and to a lesser degree, ice loss in other parts of the globe — helped to shift the North Pole several centimeters east each year since 2005.

“There was a big change,” says lead author Jianli Chen, a geophysicist.

From 1982 to 2005, the pole drifted southeast toward northern Labrador, Canada, at a rate of about 2 milliarcseconds —or roughly 6 centimetres — per year. But in 2005, the pole changed course and began galloping east toward Greenland at a rate of more than 7 milliarcseconds per year.

Scientists have long known that the locations of Earth’s geographic poles aren’t fixed. Over the course of the year, they shift seasonally as the Earth’s distributions of snow, rain, and humidity change. “Usually [the shift] is circular, with a wobble,” says Chen.

But underlying the seasonal motion is a yearly motion that is thought to be driven in part by continental drift. It was the change in that motion that caught the attention of Chen and his colleagues, who used data collected by NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine whether ice loss had shifted and accelerated the yearly polar drift.

GRACE’s twin probes measure changes in the Earth’s gravity field, which can be used to track shifts in the distribution of water and ice.  Chen’s team used GRACE data to model how melting icecaps affect Earth’s mass distribution. They found that recent accelerated ice loss and associated sea-level rise accounted for more than 90% of the post-2005 polar shift.

The results suggest that tracking polar shifts can serve as a check on current estimates of ice loss, says Erik Ivins, a geophysicist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. When mass is lost in one part of a spinning sphere, its spin axis will tilt directly toward the position of the loss, he says — exactly as Chen’s team observed for Greenland. “It’s a unique indicator of the point where the mass is lost,” says Ivins.

Scientists can locate the north and south poles to within 0.03 milliarcseconds by using Global Positioning System measurements to determine the angle of the Earth’s spin. Knowing the motion of the poles constrains estimates of ice loss made by other methods, Chen says.

And that could help scientists watching Earth’s ice bridge a likely data gap between GRACE and its replacement, GRACE II, which NASA has scheduled for launch in 2020. Researchers may also be able to use longstanding records of polar drift to improve estimates of ice loss and growth before the advent of satellite monitoring.

Chen estimates that data on polar shifts goes back roughly a century, well before the advent of Earth-monitoring satellites. “We don’t have a long record of measuring the polar ice sheet,” he says. “But for polar motion, we have a long record.”

The article was first published in Nature magazine on May 14, 2013.

Map of Potential Emission Trading Schemes

A big new World Bank  finds that more than 40 national governments and 20 sub-national governments have either put in place carbon-pricing schemes or are planning one for the years ahead. That includes either carbon taxes or some form of cap-and-trade. Here’s a map of the countries that are planning the latter:

carbon-pricing-worldwide

The report notes that the countries and regions with carbon pricing either in place or firmly scheduled are responsible for one-fifth of the world’s carbon emissions. Now, there’s a key caveat: The programs in place don’t yet cover all sources of pollution — so, in practice, only 7.7 percent of the world’s emissions have actually been priced. But that should give some sense of the scale.

The list includes emissions-trading in the European Union, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. It also includes cap-and-trade programs at the state or provincial level, such as in California, New England, and Quebec. On top of that, there are carbon taxes in place in Denmark, Finland, Norway, British Columbia, and soon South Africa.

And that’s just what exists now. The World Bank notes that developing countries like China and Brazil are also mulling over various carbon-pricing schemes. China, for instance, has set up pilot programs in seven different cities — including Beijing and Shanghai.

Source: Brad Plumer, Reporter,WP.

Google maps remote Galapagos Islands

Few have explored the remote volcanic islands of the Galapagos archipelago, an otherworldly landscape inhabited by the world’s largest tortoises and other fantastic creatures.

Soon it will take only the click of a mouse or finger swipe on a tablet to check out some of the Galapagos Islands’ most remote areas, surrounding waters and unique creatures.

Google_Galapagos_Street_View.JPEG-09d15

California-based Google sent hikers to the Galapagos with Street View gear called “trekkers,” 42-pound computer backpacks with large cameras that look like soccer balls mounted on a tower.

Each orb has 15 cameras inside it that have captured panoramic views of some of the most inaccessible places on the Galapagos, which are more than 500 miles off the Pacific coast of South America.

Crews from the Catlin Seaview Survey worked with Google to capture 360-degree views of selected underwater areas, too.

Google_Galapagos_Street_View.JPEG-0324a

Source: Associated Press, WP

Map of the countries that are most and least tolerant of homosexuality

The Pew Research Center, as part of a fascinating new report on global attitudes toward homosexuality, asked people in 39 different countries a deceptively straightforward question: “Should society accept homosexuality?” People could answer yes, no or decline the question.

The “yes” answers are mapped out above. In red countries, less than 45 percent of respondents said homosexuality should be accepted by society. In blue countries, more than 55 percent said it should be accepted. Purple countries fall in that middle range of about half.

Homo-tolarant1

(1) Sub-Saharan African and Muslim-majority countries are the least accepting of gays.

It’s not even close. While there’s wide variation in places like Latin America and Europe, Africa is almost uniformly anti-gay. Nigeria is the only surveyed country where just one percent say society should accept homosexuality; 98 percent said society shouldn’t. Results are under 10 percent for almost the entire continent, including sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa, which has closer cultural ties to the Middle East. The important exception is South Africa, famous for its gay rights movement, where a still-low 32 percent answered “yes.”

Muslim-majority countries tended to reject homosexuality, with results under 10 percent for Islamic societies from Africa to Southeast Asia to the Middle East. The only exception is Lebanon, although the country is only about two-thirds Muslim. Only 2 percent of Pakistanis and Tunisians – who are generally considered cosmopolitan by Mideast standards – said society should accept gays.

To be clear, though, some Christian-majority countries also overwhelmingly say that society shouldn’t accept homosexuality: Ghana and Uganda, both in sub-Saharan Africa.

(2) Western and Latin American countries the most accepting of gays.

As with the data we examined earlier on racial tolerance, European, Anglophone and Latin countries seem to be the most accepting. In fact, only one country outside of those three categories had more than half of respondents accepting homosexuality: the Philippines (more on this later).

The two most accepting countries are Spain and Germany, with 88 and 87 percent, respectively, answering “yes.” Generally, tolerance seems to decline further East in Europe, with about half of respondents in Greece and Poland accepting homosexuality.

Russia, infamously weak on gay rights, scored below Lebanon, with only 16 percent saying gays should be accepted. It doesn’t take long to find anecdotal evidence. On Saturday, a Russian official announced that the country would ban same-sex couples from adopting children out of the country’s notoriously over-filled and sometimes dangerous orphanage system. On Monday, a Russian airport official was beaten to death for being gay.

The U.S. also lags behind much of the Western world by this metric, with only 60 percent answering “yes.” Interestingly, with so many U.S. states now allowing same-sex marriage, those states are ahead of much of Europe on gay rights despite the overall low score on this survey.

(3) Acceptance is rising in the U.S., Canada and South Korea.

Here’s an interesting detail from Pew’s report: Attitudes about homosexuality have been fairly stable in recent years, except in South Korea, the United States and Canada, where the percentage saying homosexuality should be accepted by society has grown by at least ten percentage points since 2007.

It’s actually grown most quickly in South Korea, where’s it’s more than doubled from 18 to 39 percent. That’s still lower than you might expect, though; South Korea is the least accepting of homosexuality among the world’s rich, developed countries. Japan, at 54 percent, isn’t much better.
(4) Religious countries tend to be less accepting of gays.

Pew put together this chart of religiosity versus tolerance of homosexuality, for which they found a pretty clear correlation. (Each of those little dots represents a country; dots further to the right represent more religious countries; dots further to the bottom represent countries that are less accepting of homosexuality.)

Homo-tolarant2

Source; Washington Post